Saturday, June 20, 2020
INTRODUCTION This research presents an analysis of the proponents and criticisms of the main leadership theories. According to Storey (2004), the study of leadership in organisations has evolved through the years with changing theories of leadership and leadership development. Storey (2004) identifies the main theories as trait theory, behavioural theories, situational and contingency theories, exchange and path-goal models, new leadership (charismatic and transformational theories), constructivist theory, leadership with learning and post-charismatic and post-transformational theories. A summary of these theories is shown in table 1 (Appendix 1). The research is structured as follows: section one presents theories focusing on leader characteristics or traits including great man theory and trait theory; section two presents theories based on leader behaviour and situational models and section three presents the new leadership theories including transformational and transactional theories. Great man theories According to Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991), great man leadership theories were popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009: 855) state that the great man theory is attributed to Thomas Carlyle who proclaimed that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âFor, as I take it, Universal History, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here. According to Eckmann (2005: 4), Carlyles argument was that heroes shape history through Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe vision of their intellect, the beauty of their art, the prowess of their leadership and, most important, their divine inspiration. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that great man theories were based on the assumption that leadership qualities were inherited, particularly by upper class men. In other words, these theories asserted that great men were born, not made (Hoffman et al., 2011). Vroom and Jago (2007) refer to heroic concepts of leadership which they ar gue emerged with the great man theory of history whereby major historical events were assumed to be the work of great men with vision and genius. Hoffman et al (2011: 349) argue that great man theories fell out of favour Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âamid questions as to the evidentiary basis underlying disposition-leadership associations. Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) state that reviewers have labelled the approach as too simplistic, futile, dangerous and a product of self-delusion. Lieberson and OConnor (1972: 117) also criticise great man theories for failing to consider a leaders limits and state that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe evidence indicates that the influence of single individuals is seldom as decisive as the great-man theory would lead one to believe. Trait theories Great man theories evolved into trait theories in the early 20th century (Judge et al., 2002; Kirkpatrick and Locke, 1991). Proponents of these theories argue that leaders possess traits or characteristics that make them different from other people and give them leadership advantage. This assumption that leadership depends on the qualities of the leader makes trait theories seem similar to great man theories but trait theories differ because they do not assume that leadership is limited to a few heroic men (Judge et al, 2002). Researchers however, have failed to agree on what traits are universal and trait theories suffer from a lack of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa structure in describing personality leading to a wide range of traits being investigated under different labels (Judge et al, 2002: 766). For instance, Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) argue that the six traits that distinguish leaders from non-leaders include drive, desire to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability and business knowledge. On the other hand, House and Aditya (1997) propose four factors including achievement motivation, prosocial influence motivation, adjustment and self-confident. Mann (1959) includes masculinity, dominance, adjustment, conservatism and extroversion in his list of traits. It is clear, as shown in figure 1 below, that different researchers have proposed different traits and there is no consistency in trait theories. Figure 1: Past qualitative reviews of the traits of effective leaders ( Judge et al, 2002: 766) Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that no traits are universally associated with effective leadership and argue that situational factors are also influential. These researchers state that traits only provide the potential for leadership and additional factors including skills, vision and implanting the vision are necessary for effective leadership. Other researchers have also argued that trait theories have failed to consider situational nature of leadership (Zaccaro, 2007; Vroom and Jago, 2007). These researchers have argued that situational variables impact on leader behaviour, effectiveness and consequences. Behavioural theories According to Derue et al (2011) criticism of leader-trait paradigm has led to the development of behavioural theories of leadership which assume that leadership capability is not inherent, but can be learned. Storey (2004) states that important behavioural studies include Ohio State University, which is credited with developing the Leaders Behaviour Description Questionnaire, University of Michigan (Katz and Khan, 1978; Likert, 1961) and Blake and Mouton (1964). Behavioural theories as advocated by these researchers identified four styles of leadership behaviour: concern for tasks (production or output), concern for people, directive leadership and participative leadership. Blake and Mouton (1964) developed the Managerial Grid which identifies five theories of managerial behaviour which are based on two variables, concern for production and concern for people. The combination of these variables results in different styles of management as shown in figure 2 below. Each style is expr essed on a scale ranging from 1-9, with 1 representing minimal concern and 9 representing maximal concern. Blake and Mouton (1964) argue that it is possible for managers to learn in a classroom and revise their practices and procedures thereby moving towards an ideal 9, 9 (team management) organisational environment. Figure 2: Management Grid (source: https://cisvu.net/mod/page/view.php?id=1109) Bryman (2013) has criticised the Management Grid for its emphasis on one best way of managing organisations. This researcher also claims that empirical studies have produced mixed results on the effectiveness of the Grid and argues that there is need to have information on other variables such as management and organisation change programs before definitive conclusions can be made on the effectiveness of the model. Another criticism of behavioural theories is that they do not offer guidance on what constitutes effective leadership in different situations (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano and Dennison, 2003). Kilmann and Thomas (1977) have also criticised the validity and reliability of instruments used in behavioural theories and Vroom and Jago (2007: 19) also state that behavioural models advocated by the Ohio State University and the University of Michigan have never produced Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa solid body of scientific evidence sufficient to guide practice. Additionally, these researchers also state that these theories neglected the significance of situational variables and their impacts on leadership behaviour. Contingency (situational) theories According to Gill (2011) contingency theories suggest there is no one best way of leadership because successful leaders use different styles depending on the nature of the situation and the followers. This means that effective leaders are flexible and have the cognitive ability to adopt a different leadership style for a given situation. Storey (2004) states that proponents of cognitive theories include Fiedler (1967), Vroom and Yetton (1973), Yukl (2002) and Hershey and Blanchard (1984). Other behavioural leadership theories include path-goal theory, leadership substitutes theory and normative contingency theory (McClesky, 2014). Fiedlers (1967) two factor model divides leaders into relationship motivated and task motivated groups and suggests that leaders should be placed in the situation which is favourable to their style. Hershey and Blanchard (1984) present four leadership styles including directive, consultative, participating and delegating which are related to the readiness (maturity) of followers, for instance, leaders will adopt a directive style in a situation where followers lack readiness or the ability and confidence to perform a task. As the employees gain ability and become more confident, the leader will adopt a participating and delegating style. In other words, the level of follower maturity (job and psychological) determines the correct style of leadership. Figure 3 below shows the situational leadership model. Figure 3: Situational leadership model (Blanchard, Zigarmi and Nelson, 1993: 26) Gill (2011) claims that contingency theories like Fiedlers (1967) model and path-goal theory which develops Fielders contingency theory have been criticised for inconsistent results and measuring problems. McClesky (2014) similarly states that situational leadership theory (Hershey and Blanchard, 1984) has flaws related to consistency, continuity and conformity. McClesky (2014) also states that research shows that there is no style of leadersh ip that is universally effective and leadership types were abstract and hard to identify. Lorsch (2010) argues that contingency theories are focused on leaderships in primary groups and ignore leadership in larger organisations. Lorsch (2010) also states that contingency theories assume that one type of leadership can fit all situations and this is not plausible, for instance, the leader of an army platoon would have different leadership challenges than a sales manager or a CEO or even a senior partner in a law firm. New leadership theories: transactional and transformational theories According to Storey (2004), the 1980s saw the development of new leadership theories promoting the concept of transformation, visionary, charismatic and inspirational leadership. Bass (1985, 1991) presents a model of transformation and transaction leadership which has three dimensions of transactional leadership, namely, contingent reward, management by exception (active) and management by exception passive) and four dimensions for transformation leadership, namely, charisma , inspiration, intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration. The characteristics of transformational and transactional leaders are shown in figure 4 below. Figure 4: Characteristics of transformational and transactional leaders (Bass, 1991: 22) Bass (1999: 10) defines transactional leadership as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe exchange relationship between leader and follower to meet their own self interests. Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that this simply means that transactional leaders give fol lowers something they want in return for leaders getting what they want. Bass (1999) states that this exchange may take the form of the leader clarifying through direction or participation what the follower needs to do in order to be rewarded for the effort (contingency reward) or taking an active or passive role in monitoring and correcting follower performance. Proponents of transformational theory including Bass (1985, 1991) and Avolio and Bass (1995) define transformational leadership in terms of the leaders effects on followers and argue that transformative leaders have exceptional influence over followers whose feelings of trust, admiration, trust and loyalty towards the leader motivates them to make self-sacrifices, commit to difficult objectives and achieve much more than is expected of them. Bass (1991) states that transformative leaders are able to achieve these results through behaviours including individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation, charisma and ins pirational motivation. Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) refer to transformation theories as charismatic theories and argue that they emphasise different leader behaviour than that emphasised by earlier theories of organisational leadership. These researchers state that while earlier theories focused on leader/follower exchange relationships, providing direction, support and reinforcement behaviours, charismatic theories emphasise symbolic leader behaviour, visionary and inspirational messages, non verbal communication and appeal to ideological values. Transactional leadership differs from transformational leadership in the leader/ follower exchange relationship, with transformational leadership inspiring followers to move beyond self interests to collective interests and to do more than was originally expected (Hartog, Muijen and Koopman, 1997). Bass (1999) argues that transformational leadership builds on from transactional leadership and states that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âchanges in th e marketplace and workforce over the two decades have resulted in the need for leaders to become more transformational and less transactional if they were to remain effective (Bass, 1999: 9). Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that Basss (1985) model of transactional and transformation leadership is based on the model developed by Burns (1978) and argue that this model lacks an explanation of the internal processes which lead to the development of the actions of transformational and transactional leaders, in other words, neither Burns (1978) or Bass (1985) has Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âprovided a framework for understanding the motivational states or personality differences that give rise to these two types of leadership (Kunhert and Lewis, 1987: 648). This is a weakness that has been identified by other researchers including Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) and Yukl (1999). Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) state that existing motivational theories such as exchange theories, reinforcement theori es and cognitive theories cannot be used to explain the claims that a variety of behaviours can transform follower behaviour from self-interests to collective interests. Yukl (1999) also states that weaknesses of transformational leadership theory includes ambiguous constructs, narrow focus on dyadic processes, omission of some relevant behaviours, insufficient specification of limiting conditions and a bias towards heroic conceptions of leadership. Rafferty and Griffin (2004) also argue that despite the popularity of transformational theories, there are concerns regarding the definition of the sub-dimensions of the model and these concerns have resulted in empirical research providing mixed support for the differentiation of the components of the model. Researchers have also highlighted problems with the operationalisation of the concepts of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which has been developed to measure transformational leadership (Hartog, Muijen and Koopman, 19 97). CONCLUSION A review of leadership theories shows a progression from great man and trait theories to new leadership theories including transformation and transaction theories. Research shows that each of these theories has its strengths and weaknesses and there is no ideal leadership theory. REFERENCES Avolio, B. and Bass, B. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), pp.199-218. Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. (1991). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), pp.19-31 Bass, B. (1999). Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), pp.9-32. Blake, R. and Mouton, J. (1964). The managerial grid: key orientations for achieving production through people. Houston, Tex.: Gulf Pub. Co. Blanchard, K., Zigarmi, D. and Nelson, R. (1993). Situational Leadership(R) After 25 Years: A Retrospective. Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies, 1(1), pp.21-36. Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., Dennison, P. ( 2003, June). A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter. https://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/luisrodrigues/textos/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf Bryman, A. (2013). Leadership and organizations. London: Routledge. Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Row. Derue, D., Nahrgang, J., Wellman, N. and Humphrey, S. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: an integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), pp.7-52 Eckmann, H. (2005). Great Man Theory: A personal account of attraction. [online] www.jameslconsulting.com. Available at: https://www.jameslconsulting.com/documents/GreatManTheory.pdf Fiedler, F. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gill, R. (2011). Theory and practice of leadership. London: SAGE. Hersey, P. and Blanchard,, K. (1984). The situational leader. Center for Leadership Studies.House, R. and Aditya, R. ( 1997). The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?. Journal of Management, 23(3), pp.409-473. Hartog, D., Muijen, J. and Koopman, P. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(1), pp.19-34. Hoffman, B., Woehr, D., Maldagen-Youngjohn, R. and Lyons, B. (2011). Great man or great myth? A quantitative review of the relationship between individual differences and leader effectiveness. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), pp.347-381. Judge, T., Bono, J., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), pp.765-780. Judge, T., Piccolo, R. and Kosalka, T. (2009). The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), pp.855-875. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. (1978). The social psy chology of organizations. New York: Wiley. Kirkpatrick, S. and Locke, E. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter?. Executive, 5(2), pp.48-60. Kilmann, R. and Thomas, K. (1977). Developing a Forced-Choice Measure of Conflict-Handling Behavior: The Mode Instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37(2), pp.309-325. Kuhnert, K. and Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Constructive/Developmental Analysis. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), pp.648-657. Lieberson, S. and OConnor, J. (1972). Leadership and Organizational Performance: A Study of Large Corporations. American Sociological Review, 37(2), p.117. Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill. Lorsch, J. W. (2010). A contingency theory of leadership. In N. Nohria, R. Khurana (Eds.), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. 411-432). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press Mann, R. (1959). A review of the relationships between personality and pe rformance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56(4), pp.241-270. McCleskey, J. (2014). Emotional intelligence and leadership. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), pp.76-93. Rafferty, A. and Griffin, M. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(3), pp.329-354. Shamir, B., House, R. and Arthur, M. (1993). The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. Organization Science, 4(4), pp.577-594. Storey, J. (2004). Leadership in organizations. London: Routledge. Vroom, V. and Jago, A. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), pp.17-24. Vroom, V. and Yetton, P. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. [Pittsburgh]: University of Pittsburgh Press. Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp.285-305. Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Zaccaro, S. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1), pp.6-16. APPENDIX 1 Table 1 : Summary of main leadership theories (Storey, 2004)
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Introduction The Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Letter to the Danbury Baptists are three significant documents that played a major role in the founding of our nation. The documents are important on their own as they cut ties with a large country, establish a new country, and enforce the rights of its citizens. However, they are just important as a set as they show the growth and strength of a nation in its infancy. The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence, which was the first of the three documents to be written, is confrontational and aggressive in nature. The Declaration justified the colonists impending acts of rebellion, which would be considered high treason by Great Britain. After generally justifying their position, the writers of the Declaration further supported their actions by including a length list of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s specific acts of tyranny. 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Monday, May 18, 2020
Introduction Information professionals serve individuals as well as communities. Since everyone has their own learning style it is imperative that professionals have a basic understanding of learning principles and theories and understand how they can design instructional programs based on these theories. By having an understanding of learning principles and by having the ability to design programs, information professionals can tailor their actions to better suit their usersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Cognitive load theory A significant theory to consider when teaching a user or student is cognitive load theory. Cognitive load theory suggests that learning happens best when it is aligned to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive ability or working memory. Our working memory can only handle a small amount of information or a limited time, by creating schemes we can transfer information from our working memory to our long term memory which can store a lot of information for an indefinite amount of time. 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One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variablesRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology2134 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesbehavior. If a child doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t effectively complete a stage, Freud suggested that he or she would develop a fascination that would then later on effect adult personality and behavior. Erik erikson Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was greatly influenced by Sigmund freuds theory, following Sigmund freuds theory to do with the structure of personalities, but freud was an id psychologist, erk erikson was an ego psychologist. erikson highlighted the part of culture and society and also the battles that happen with the
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Erik Thorvaldson (also spelled Eric or Eirik Torvaldsson; in Norwegian, Eirik Raude). As the son of Thorvald, he was known as Erik Thorvaldson until he was dubbed the Red for his red hair. Notable Accomplishment Founding the first European settlement on Greenland. Occupations LeaderExplorer Places of Residence and Influence Scandinavia Important Dates Born: c. 950 Died: 1003 Biography Much of what scholars understand about Eriks life comes from Eirik the Reds Saga, an epic tale written by an unknown author in the mid-13th century.Ã Erik was born in Norway to a man named Thorvald and his wife and was thus known as Erik Thorvaldsson. He was given the name Erik the Red because of his red hair; although later sources attribute the moniker to his fiery temper, there is no clear evidence of this. When Erik was still a child, his father was convicted of manslaughter and exiled from Norway. Thorvald went to Iceland and took Erik with him. Thorvald and his son lived in western Iceland. Not long after Thorvald died, Erik married a woman named Thjodhild, whose father, Jorund, may have provided the land that Erik and his bride settled on in Haukadale (Hawkdale). It was while he was living at this homestead, which Erik named Eriksstadr (Eriks farm), that his thralls (servants) caused a landslide that damaged the farm belonging to his neighbor Valthjof. A kinsman of Valthjof, Eyjolf the Foul, killed the thralls. In retaliation, Erik killed Eyjolf and at least one other man. Rather than escalate a blood feud, Eyjolfs family instituted legal proceedings against Erik for these killings. Erik was found guilty of manslaughter and banished from Hawkdale. He then took up residence further north (according to Eiriks Saga, He occupied then Brokey and Eyxney, and dwelt at Tradir, in Sudrey, the first winter.)Ã While building a new homestead, Erik lent what were apparently valuable pillars for seat-stocks to his neighbor, Thorgest. When he was ready to claim their return, Thorgest refused to give them up. Erik took possession of the pillars himself, and Thorgest gave chase; fighting ensued, and several men were killed, including two sons of Thorgest. Once again legal proceedings took place, and once again Erik was banished from his home for manslaughter. Frustrated with these legal wranglings, Erik turned his eyes westward. The edges of what turned out to be an enormous island were visible from the mountaintops of western Iceland, and the Norwegian GunnbjÃ ¶rn Ulfsson had sailed near the island some years earlier, though if hed made landfall its not recorded. There was no doubt that there was some kind of land there, and Erik determined to explore it himself and determine whether or not it could be settled. He set sail with his household and some livestock in 982. The direct approach to the island was unsuccessful, due to drift ice, so Eriks party continued on around the southern tip until they came to present-day Julianehab. According to Eiriks Saga, the expedition spent three years on the island; Erik roved far and wide and named all the places he came to. They didnt encounter any other people. They then went back to Iceland to convince others to return to the land and establish a settlement. Erik called the place Greenland because, he said, men will desire much the more to go there if the land has a good name. Erik succeeded in convincing many colonists to join him on a second expedition. 25 ships set sail, but only 14 ships and about 350 people landed safely. They did establish a settlement, and by about the year 1000 there were approximately 1,000 Scandinavian colonists there. Unfortunately, an epidemic in 1002 reduced their number considerably, and eventually, Eriks colony died out. However, other Norse settlements would survive until the 1400s, when communications mysteriously ceased for more than a century. Eriks son Leif would lead an expedition to America around the turn of the millennium.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Christmas in Trinidad and Tobago Ã¢â¬Å"When Santa Clause arrives in Trinidad and Tobago, it is to the rhythm of Parang. The climate is warm and the flowers are in bloom, which makes for a colorful season.Ã¢â¬ This quote from writer Bill Egan wonderfully describes Christmas on my twin island home of Trinidad and Tobago where the holiday is celebrated in a most unique way with many ingrained traditions. By mid-November, the stores of the capital city, Port-of-Spain, are flooded with early Christmas shoppers. The most popular places are textile and drapery stores. I remember coming from school one evening and seeing women, whose faces were beaded in sweat, hauling big white bags toward the bus terminal. For me, this was a sign thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These significant Spanish influences are deeply rooted in the history of the twin island republic. After Trinidad was discovered by Columbus in 1498, it was then colonized by the Spaniards in 1598 and remained under Spanish rule until it was captured by the British in 1797. Therefore, the Spanish presence in the country is still felt up to this day in names of our villages, in the food we eat and in the music that we enjoy. On the eve of Christmas, another common sight is the last minute house cleaning. For many Trinidadians, it has become a tradition to clean on Christmas Eve. Some say that doing this adds to the excitement of the following day. My neighbor is one such person; Miss Merlin thrives for the excitement of last minute cleaning. On Christmas Eve you can find her in the kitchen baking while she is simultaneously giving instructions to her children as to how the chairs should be arranged and which curtain should go up, Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas, put de [the] blue curtains up in de [the] living room, for meh [me] please.Ã¢â¬ I must admit the rush to get it all done before the sun comes up is truly exhilarating. Of course, Christmas will not be Christmas without ham, black cake, pastels, pigeon peas, ginger beer and punch de crÃ ¨me. Pastels are of Spanish origin and are made from corn meal, raisins, olives and minced beef. When finished, it looks similar to a beef patty, however, it is wrapped in the leaves of theShow MoreRelatedBirth And Evolution Of Trinidad Carnival1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespublic celebration or parade that involved the use of masks, musical elements, costumes and more. Dating back to the 18th century, the Trinidad Carnival was introduced around the time of the arrival of the French Catholic planters from the French West Indies. The festival originated in the early 1780s when both white and colored people staged masquerade balls at Christmas time for entertainment. From there, it developed into playful taunting between the two groups and eventually the tradition evolvedRead MoreTrinidad Carnival1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTrinidad Carnival Carnival is a festival of colours which is transformed into costumes, calypso, steel band music, dance and different foods and Caribbean art which attracts many people from the different countries. The carnival season is usually during the two weeks before the traditional Christian fasting of Lent. This is celebrated to mark an overturning of daily life.The roots of carnival both lay in Africa and France(Liverpool:57). Trinidad carnival is a very significant festival in the islandRead MoreCarnival1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTrinidad Carnival Carnival is a festival of colours which is transformed into costumes, calypso, steel band music, dance and different foods and Caribbean art which attracts many people from the different countries. The carnival season is usually during the two weeks before the traditional Christian fasting of Lent. This is celebrated to mark an overturning of daily life.The roots of carnival both lay in Africa and France(Liverpool:57). Trinidad carnival is a very significant festival in theRead MoreThe Coca-Cola Company - Standardisation Adaptation2230 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesstandardize its product and manufacturing process. In Trinidad and Tobago the local name for Coca Cola is Ã¢â¬Å"CokeÃ¢â¬ . From the perspective of consumers the key conceptual categories are not the flavours and colas that marketer hold in high regard, but what we refer to locally as the Ã¢â¬ËblackÃ¢â¬â¢ sweet drink. (Miller) TrinbagonianÃ¢â¬â¢s are particularly fond of sugar and sweet products this is linked to the days of the sugar cane field. Coke came into Trinidad in 1939, while under the British Government. (Miller)Read MoreTrinidad Carnival1756 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTrinidad Carnival Carnival is a festival of colours which is transformed into costumes, calypso, steel band music, dance and different foods and Caribbean art which attracts many people from the different countries. The carnival season is usually during the two weeks before the traditional Christian fasting of Lent. This is celebrated to mark an overturning of daily life.The roots of carnival both lay in Africa and France(Liverpool:57). Trinidad carnival is a very significant festival in theRead MoreMusic in the Caribbean3392 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesCaribbean music has clearly been reggae. This style emerged in the late 1960s in Jamaica as a reinterpretation of American R B music. Singers such as Bob Marley have helped push this style into the international arena. Calypso (with its origin in Trinidad and Tobago) continues to grow in popularity, and is the music generally associate with the various carnivals in the Caribbean. Ska is a dance music, that was originated out of Jamaica until it was evolve in the early 1960s to shake the butts of workingRead MoreHow Sm Jaleel Went Global12239 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesSM jaleel Company in trinidad diversification of its products FOR THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY Ministry of Trade and Industry Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Developed by: The Food Beverage Industry Team Report Preparation: Arnold Babwah May, 2005 Preface The conceptual framework for this document is the result of a partnership approach between public sector agencies and the private sector. It attempts, within the context of the 2020 VISION for national developmentRead MoreThe, Music, And Music2564 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesgenres for me, seem as though they take the most quintessential parts of living a happy simple life in the Caribbean and present it to make time at the moment seem perfect, in one word. Steel pan music, which draws its roots from the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, draws together the experiences and emotions of all of these music categories making it one of the most enjoyable forms of music for myself, as well as soca and calypso appreciators around the globe. For this ethnographic piece, the drivingRead MoreThe, Music, And Music2578 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesgenres for me, seem as though they take the most quintessential parts of living a happy simple life in the Caribbean and present it to make time at the moment seem perfect, in one word. Steel pan music, which draws its roots from the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, draws together the experiences and emotions of all of these music categories, making it one of the most enjoyable forms of music for myself, as well as soca and calypso appreciators around the globe. For this ethnographic piece, the drivingRead MoreWhat Is Geography?1066 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjust fun and games many of the crew members who set sail with Mr. Columbus had going really sick and passed away from hunger and thirst as well as ammonia .also on November 21,1492 the pinto and crew left to explore on its own. Then on Christmas day the Santa Maria war wrecked it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as worthy to sail as Mr. Columbus thought it would be. ChristopherÃ¢â¬â¢s second voyage took place on September 23, 1493. This voyage consists of 17 ships and 1,200 men. The purpose of this journey was to
Modern business is a very complex reality. Many factors influence and determine the business activity. Among other organizational factors managerial, scientific technological and socio-cultural-political, the business complexity of social activities, business with the complexities of modern society. We will write a custom essay sample on Business and Consumer Protection in Islam or any similar topic only for you Order Now For social events, business in many ways intertwined with the complexities of modern society. All the factors that make up the complexities of modern business has been frequently studied and analyzed through a scientific approach, especially in economics and management theory (K.Ã Bertens: 2000). In the myth of modern business business people are required to be professional people in his field. They have the skills and business skills beyond the average person, he should be able to show that performance is above average business performance amateur. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s interesting is not only about the performance aspects of the business, managerial, and technical organizations alone but also about the ethical aspects. Performance becomes prasarat business success also involves a moral commitment, moral integrity, discipline, loyalty, unity of moral vision, service, attitude give priority to quality, respect for rights and interests of relevant parties concerned (stakeholders), which over time will develop into a business ethics in a company. Conduct an honest Prophet transparent and generous in doing business practice is the key to success in managing the business Khodijah ra, is a concrete example of the morals and ethics in business. (Http://uika-bogor. ac. d/doc/public/etika% 20bisnis% 20islam. pdf) If we trace the history, the religion of Islam seems a favorable view of trade and economic activity. Prophet Muhammad was a merchant, and the religion of Islam spread primarily through the Muslim traders. In the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an there is a warning against the misuse of wealth, but not prohibited from seeking wealth by lawful means (QS: 2; 275) Ã¢â¬Å"Allah has made trade and prohibits usury. Ã¢â¬ Islam puts trading activity in a very strategic position in the center of human activity seek sustenance and livelihood. This can be seen in the words of the Prophet Muhammad: Ã¢â¬Å"Pay attention by all your trade, real commercial world it is nine out of ten the door of sustenance. Ã¢â¬ Dawam Rahardjo precisely suspect Weber thesis on ethics of Protestantism, which cites business activities as a human responsibility to God quoting from Islamic teachings. The following business activities that are prohibited in sharia: 1. Avoiding business transaction that is forbidden in Islam. A Muslim must be committed to interact with things that are made lawful by Allah SWT. A Muslim businessman should not be doing business in the things forbidden by sharia. And a Muslim businessman claimed to always do the good business and society. Business, food is not halal or kosher not contain ingredients, liquor, drugs, prostitution or all of which relate to the world of sparkling like night clubs discotic cafe where mixing of men and women accompanied by a stomping songs, treats and drinks and the food is not kosher Other (QS: Al-AÃ¢â¬â¢raf; 32. QS: Al Maidah; 100) is a business activity that is forbidden. 2. Avoiding how to obtain and use property is not kosher. The practice of usury is miserable to be avoided, Islam prohibits usury with severe threats (QS: Al-Baqara, 275-279), while speculative transactions are very closely related to the business that is not transparent such as gambling, fraud, violated the trust so it will most likely harm. Hoarding of money to turn off the function to be enjoyed by others and the narrow space of business and economic activity is a disgraceful act and being rewarded to the most severe (Sura: At-Tauba: 34-35). Redundant and a waste of money for purposes that are not useful and dissipate all the excesses. All properties are prohibited because it is a trait that is not wise in the use of property and contrary to the commandment of God (Surah: Al AÃ¢â¬â¢raf; 31). 3. Unfair competition is denounced by God as mentioned in the Quran surat Al-Baqarah: 188: Ã¢â¬Å"Do not you eat some of the treasure of you in a falsehood. Ã¢â¬ Monopoly also includes unfair competition Prophet denounced the act was: Ã¢â¬Å"Whoever is doing then he is guilty of monopolyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"A wholesaler was given sustenance by God as for someone who did that accursed monopoly. Monopoly done to gain market control by preventing the other players to compete in various ways, often in ways that are not laudable goal is to memahalkan price for these entrepreneurs have a huge advantage. Prophet said: Ã¢â¬Å"Someone who intentionally do something to memahalkan price, Allah will promise to the throne made from the Fire later in the day of Judgement. Ã¢â¬ 4. Forgery and fraud, Islam strictly prohibits falsifying and deceptive because it can cause harm, injustice, and can lead to hostility and strife. Allah says in Surah: Al-Isra: 35: Ã¢â¬Å"And full measure when ye measure, and weigh with a right balance. Ã¢â¬ The Prophet said: Ã¢â¬Å"If you sell it you shall not deceive people with sweet words. Ã¢â¬ In the modern business at least we see in ways not commendable by some businessmen in its product offering, which is forbidden in Islam. In essence, the consumer contains a very broad sense, as expressed President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, Ã¢â¬Å"Consumers by definition include us allÃ¢â¬ (By definition, all of us including the consumer). (Shidarta, 2000: 2). Consumer Protection Act No. 8, 1999 Chapter I, article 1, number 2, the consumer defines as, Ã¢â¬Å"Every person users of goods or services that are available in the community, both for the interests of self, family, others, as well as other creatures and not for tradingÃ¢â¬ . (Government of the Republic of Indonesia, 1999: 5) Consumers in the economic laws of Islam are not limited to those SAJ war, but also includes a legal entity (al-syakhshiyyat al-maÃ¢â¬â¢nawawiyyah), such as endowments or foundations of certain companies and institutions. Islamic economic laws there is no difference between the end user with a medium user. Muslim jurists did not distinguish between goods kondumsi property, goods production, and intermediary goods, as contained in the general economics. This brings the influences on consumer definitions that must be protected in Islam because in Islam, including consumer goods all users, whether the goods were used directly, so exhausted, used as a tool for intermediaries to further prosuksi justice belongs to everyone, whether he is domiciled as individuals, groups or the public. Advances in technology and the development of economy and perdangangan volume demanding extra supervision of the risks that might arise from the use of certain products. Poor environmental conditions caused by business actors in general, should also get serious attention because every living being is a consumer of the environment. Muhammad, 2004: 180) In Islam there are five things that must be kept kemaslahatannya become key objective of sharia (al-necessities al-repertoire), the religion (al-din), reason (al-Ã¢â¬Ëaql), descent (an-NASL), and property ( al-mal), while some Islamic jurists there is also adding to the al-Ã¢â¬Ëardh (honor), but according to honor the author is already covered in the custody of al nafs (soul). When associated with the risk caused by defective products or irresponsibility of a product, the main objectives of the fifth yag more focused on guarding the soul, mind and wealth. Muhammad, 2004: 181) However, if the risk of such usage caused by Ã¢â¬Å"negligenceÃ¢â¬ of producers, then this should be linked also with the theory of liability contained in this kejahatab jinayah in Islamic Jurisprudence. In theory the responsibility of Islamic Jurisprudence crime, crimes and violations that occur on human rights can not be invalidated by reason of mistake, not intentional acts. Therefore, the perpetrators of these acts must bear the loss of property or life with fines that have been determined shariÃ¢â¬â¢ah. How to cite Business and Consumer Protection in Islam, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Energy Consumption And Greenhouse Emission. Answer: Introduction This section aims to present an overview of the chosen topic for research and purpose behind selection of the particular topic. Further, the objective for the research is also stated in this section along with preparing the research questions. This section further helps to present aim of the research so that the readers can easily understand the motive behind undertaking this particular research. This research project aims to enhance the quantitative information that is available on energy consumption by commercial buildings. This research will help to analyze the building stock along with energy that is consumed by fuel as well as end use. The data that will be considered for the research project is emission of greenhouse gases from the year 1999 to 2020. Background of the study In this modern world of technological innovations, there is an over increasing demand for energy so as to meet the requirements of people. The increasing demand of energy stimulates the growth of economy however the use of energy also results into emission of greenhouse gases. The existing studies in the past have focused on the relationship among environmental pollutants along with consumption of energy and growth of economy (Khan et al., 2014). Global warming is arising as a major concern for this modern world and there are various measures undertaken by different countries. Hence, this particular research has been chosen to determine if there is any relationship between energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases. This study will prove to be beneficial for reducing the emission of greenhouse gas particularly in context to the hotels in Australia. Aim of the research The aim of this study is to identify the possibilities of relationship between consumption of energy and emission of greenhouse gases in context to the hotels in Australia. This study will also help to determine usage of energy and the associated emissions of greenhouse gases by considering the quantitative information available with respect to the commercial buildings in Australia. Objectives of the research It is essential to identify and prepare some objectives in accordance to aim of the research so that the chosen topic can be further explored. The developing of objectives for the research helps to divide a broad topic into suitable forms to ensure success of the study. The objectives that have been determined for successful accomplishment of this particular research are listed as below: To identify if there is any relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in hotels of Australia. To determine the energy usage and the associated emission of greenhouse gases for hotels in Australia. To study the impact of energy usage on emission of greenhouse gases in context to hotels in Australia. Research Questions The research questions forms the base for understanding the topic of research in depth and in a detailed manner. The research questions emphasizes on selected area of analysis so as to gain relevant as well as appropriate information in accordance to the chosen topic for research. The questions that have been prepared for research on the particular chosen topic is listed as below: Do you think that there is relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in hotels of Australia? Do you think that emission of greenhouse gases is related to usage of energy in hotels of Australia? Do energy usage influence greenhouse gas emissions in hotels of Australia? Structure for the study The entire research project will be conducted by following an organized and detailed format as provided below: Chapter 1 Introduction: This section will focus on providing an overview of the chosen topic for research. Moreover, the aims and objectives of the research are also stated in this section that helps to analyze the research topic. Chapter 2 Literature Review: This section helps to achieve some knowledge on the theories and concepts that are important to conduct the research. In this section, the focus is on critically analyzing existing studies on the chosen topic. Chapter 3 Research Methodology: In this section, the stepwise methods for conducting the research will be discussed. This section as a chapter helps to guide the researcher and understand the process for conducting the study. Chapter 4 Findings and Analysis: This particular section is intended for analyzing the data that will be collected for the study. Further, the section will also demonstrate the results that have been achieved from the study. Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations: This is considered as the final section that draws a conclusion to the study. Further, this section also focuses on recommendations that can be followed for conducting this study in future. Summary This section has focused on providing an overview of the topic that has been chosen for this particular research. The purpose behind undertaking this particular study is also described along with preparing of objectives and research questions. Further, the structure that have to be followed for conducting the entire research project has also been illustrated in this section. Literature Review Introduction This particular section concentrates on developing academic knowledge so as to determine the relationship between the consumption of energy and emission of greenhouse gases. The researcher as well as the readers will be able to achieve better understanding on the research topic with the help of this knowledge. The discussions are carried in this section to study the research topic in a more detailed manner. Theoretical Background The emergence of increasing demand for energy for carrying out human activities have significantly contributed to the change in climate as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. The emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing the global temperature level as well as greenhouse gases. According to Khoshnevisan et al. (2013), there is continuous growth in the levels of carbon dioxide to 390 ppm above pre-industrial levels. Hence, this study will help to understand the relation between energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases in context to hotels in Australia. Energy consumption in buildings According to Scofield (2013), it has been reported that around 35 to 40% of total energy is consumed by buildings of developed countries comprising of 50 to 65% electricity consumption. The energy demand is believe to be consistently rising in the buildings for improving the standard of living along with quality of life. The hotels are mostly using energy for maintaining their services being offered to the customers and quality standards. Further, the hotels also offer food and delicacies to their clients due to which there is high consumption of energy such as electricity as well as fuel gas. Chau, Leung and Ng (2015), has stated that 100% of the energy that is generated onsite in hotels using sources with low or even zero carbon can be used for reducing the consumption of energy annually. Emissions from energy consumption in buildings The emission of carbon dioxide due to consumption of energy in context to buildings can be categorized into two types that is direct emissions which means burning of fuel gas for heating or cooking purposes and emissions due to electricity usage for heating, cooling or providing power to the buildings (Alshehry Belloumi, 2015). The emission in hotels consist of both these categories thus increasing the percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. Electricity along with direct consumption of natural gas and petroleum is used for heating or cooking purpose in hotels which are the two most common sources of energy. Approximately 78% of total energy being consumed by buildings is from electricity that results into significant emission of greenhouse gases. As per Huang, Wang and Wang (2015), GHG outflows from power have expanded by around 18% since 1990, as the interest for power has developed and petroleum derivative has remained the prevailing hotspot for age. The measure of vitality expend ed has quadrupled since 1940, while the populace generally multiplied. A sharp increment in lodging units has likewise added to this pattern. There were 140 million lodging units in 2011, an expansion of over 250% since 1940. Summary The hotel industry is utilizing significant amount of energy and thus contributing towards emission of greenhouse gases. In the upcoming years, it is believed that the percentage will rise due to rapid changes in lifestyle as well as technologies. Hence, there is a need to mitigate this issue for reducing the impact on climate. Research Methodology Introduction This section as a chapter defines the approach that is most appropriate and have to be adopted for attaining the results of the research. Flick (2015), illustrates upon the various theories as well as concepts that can be adopted for acquiring in depth knowledge and better analysis of the topic that has been selected for the research. The application of proper research methodology will help to understand the suitable procedure for determining the relationship between energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases. Further, Punch (2013), has pointed out that common errors may arise while adopting the detailed process for conducting the research which often creates limitations within the process for research. Research Approach The study on the particular topic for this research can be undertaken with the help of two ways that is it may be either deductive or inductive. The inductive approach helps to conduct the research even if there is no data available on the selected topic. The initiation phase of this approach is observation which helps to gather relevant information. However, according to Yilmaz (2013), deductive approach can be used for describing the practical application of theories for attaining the concept of chosen research topic. This approach will help to develop a theory more specialized and concepts for analysis of data. Hence, it is required that the approach should be selected based on the topic for research and nature of the study so that better analysis can be done on the selected topic. Data collection procedure For any research, data is an essential element for collecting information as well as facts that are helpful to study the topic for research. According to Brannen (2017), collection of data is important for deriving more accurate results in context to the study. For this particular research, secondary data is selected as suitable sources of data that can be gathered from online as well as offline sources such as journals, articles along with websites and existing studies that are available on the internet. The data that will be analysed for this particular research will be from the year 1999 to 2020 in context to hotels in Australia. The data to be used for this research is available in the Australian government website Department of the industry, innovation and science from page number 66 to 70. Research Method The methodology that will adopted for this study is quantitative as it will help to gather statistical data for conducting the particular research. This methodology will prove to be beneficial as it helps to achieve accurate results based on objectives prepared for the research. The quantitative approach is suitable for this particular research as it emphasizes on statistical, mathematical or even numerical analysis of data that is obtained from surveys, polls and questionnaires. In this approach, the researcher can also manipulate the data that is already existing with the help of computational techniques. Population and sampling The sample population intended for this research will be 200 records based on the chosen area of research. The simple random sampling approach will be considered for this study as every member will have equal chance to participate for collecting data. The chosen sampling approach for the research is suitable as it is provides every participant with an equal opportunity in participating in the research. The data will be chosen according to validity of those and completeness. The variables that have been identified for this particular research are Energy consumption rate and greenhouse gas emission. Ethical considerations The study for determining the relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in context to hotels of Australia will be conducted by taking into account the following ethical considerations as below: Involvement of respondents: The participants or members associated with this research will not be exerted with any external influence or pressure to take part in the research. Anonymity of respondents: The identity of the participants will not be disclosed and it will be kept confidential. References Alshehry, A. S., Belloumi, M. (2015). Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,41, 237-247. Brannen, J. (Ed.). (2017). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge. Chau, C. K., Leung, T. M., Ng, W. Y. (2015). 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A global review of energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and policy in the residential sector (with an overview of the top ten CO 2 emitting countries).Renewable and sustainable energy reviews,43, 843-862. Punch, K. F. (2013). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Sage. Scofield, J. H. (2013). Efficacy of LEED-certification in reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for large New York City office buildings.Energy and Buildings,67, 517-524. Tam, W. V., Le, K. N., Tran, C. N. N., Wang, J. Y. (2017). A review on contemporary computational programs for Building's life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions assessment: An empirical study in Australia.Journal of Cleaner Production. Tsai, K. T., Lin, T. P., Hwang, R. L., Huang, Y. J. (2014). Carbon dioxide emissions generated by energy consumption of hotels and homestay facilities in Taiwan.Tourism Management,42, 13-21. Xu, S. C., He, Z. X., Long, R. Y. (2014). Factors that influence carbon emissions due to energy consumption in China: Decomposition analysis using LMDI.Applied Energy,127, 182-193. Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311-325.